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Hafizova kritika društva kroz panegirike vladarima

Autor:
Elvir Musić
Kategorija:
Sufijska poezija

UDK 140.8 Shirazi

Šemsuddin Muhammed Hafi z iz Širaza (1315-1390) živio je u veoma turobnom stoljeću obilježenom raspadom Ilhanidskog carstva, kontinuiranim sukobima među lokalnim vladarima, borbi  prinčeva za prevlast i prevratima koji su se smjenjivali takvom brzinom da je bilo itekako teško iznijeti jasan stav koji koliko sutra ne bi mogao prerasti u ozbiljno iskušenje za samog pjesnika, mislioca, intelektualca. Isto tako bilo je itekako teško formirati jasan stav o aktualnim negativnim trendovima koji su rastakali društvo. Direktna kritika tih pojava značila je kritiku društva, a kritika društva je, u konačnici, tumačena kao kritika vlasti. S druge strane, hvalospjevi na račun vladara pjesnicima su donosili materijalnu korist, ali su zbog toga trpjeli omrazu u društvu. Hafiz Širazi svojim kreativnim duhom uspio je osmisliti novu metodu kritike društva koja nije tumačena i kao kritika vlasti, jer je takvo tumačenje neutralizirao činjenicom da je u istom gazelu u kojem kritizira društvo hvalio i vladara. Može li ga se zbog toga smatrati panegiričarem, kritičarem društva ili kreativnim misliocem spremnim pronaći rješenje i za najteža pitanja, pitanje je na koje se pokušava dati odgovor u ovom radu.

Ključne riječi: Hafiz, Širaz, Šah Šodža, Muhtesib, kritika, gazel

Abstract
Hafiz’s Criticism of Society Through His Panegyrics for Rulers
Elvir Musić
Shamsuddin Muhammad Hafiz from Shiraz (1315-1390) lived in a very gloomy century marked by the dissolution of Ilkhanid empire, continuous conflicts between the local rulers, princes’ fight for control and overturns which were so swift that it was very difficult to present one’s opinion which could, as early as on the following day, turn into grave circumstances for a poet, a thinker, an intellectual. In such circumstances, it was very difficult to form a clear standpoint on the current negative trends which were corrupting the society. A direct criticism of such phenomena meant a criticism of the society, while a criticism of society was basically interpreted as a criticism of the government. On the other hand, panegyrics for the ruler would bring poets material gain, but also hatred of the society. With his creative spirit, Hafiz Shirazi managed to come up with a new method of criticising the society which was not interpreted as a criticism of the government, since such
interpretation was neutralised by the fact that the same gazel which criticised the society praised the ruler. Given the aforementioned, this paper attempts to offer an answer to the following questions: can Hafiz be regarded as a panegyrist, a critic of the society or a creative thinker who was ready to find a solution for the most challenging issues.
Keywords: Hafiz Shirazi, Shiraz, Shah Shoja, Muhtesib, criticism, gazel