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Kratki prikaz djela Feriduddina ‘Attara

Autor:
Mubina Moker

UDK 821.222.1.09 ‘Attar F.

Šejh Feriduddin Muhammed ‘Attar iz Nišabura središnja je ličnost perzijske gnostičke poezije druge polovine 12. i početka 13. stoljeća. Premda se u gazelima Senaija Gaznevija naziru naznake gnostičke tematike, ona svoju potpunu afirmaciju dobija u ‘Attarovom poetskom izražaju, dok njegova djela predstavljaju jednu od najznačajnijih etapa u razvoju perzijske gnostičke poezije. U nedostatku relevantnih povijesnih podataka ‘Attarov lik i život obilježeni su polulegendarnim detaljima, što se neminovno odrazilo i na njegov književni opus u obliku fenomena “patvorenih ‘Attara”, kvazipjesnika, koji su se s vremenske distance od čak dva ili tri stoljeća zaklanjali za poetski pseudonim “Attar” i autentičnim ‘Attarovim pridodavali vlastite stihove, koji se ni po čemu nisu uklapali u ‘Attarov rafinirani senzibilitet a još su manje imali doticaja s njegovim autentičnim gnostičkim naučavanjem. “Patvorenih ‘Attara” perzijske poezije bilo je mnogo, sudeći prema broju djela koja se pripisuju ‘Attaru, a pripisuje mu se čak 114 djela, što odgovara broju kur’anskih sura, čime se ‘Attarovoj ličnosti željela dati “aureola svetosti”.

Ključne riječi: Divan, Esrarnama, Mantik al-tajr, Muhtarnama, Musibetnama, “patvoreni ‘Attari”, Tezkira evlija

Abstract

A Brief Review of The Work by Feriduddin ‘Attar

Mubina Moker

Sheikh Feriduddin Muhammed ‘Attar from Nishapur is the central author of Persian Gnostic poetry of the second half of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th century. Although some features of Gnostic themes may be observed in gazels by Senayi Gaznevi, they will be fully developed in ‘Attar’s poetry whose work represents one of the most important staged of Persian Gnostic poetry development. Due to the lack of relevant historic data, ‘Attar and his life are marked with semi-legend details, which had to be reflected in his literary work as a phenomenon of “spurious ‘Attars”, quasi-poets, who were hidden behind the poetic pseudonym ‘Attar from the distance of two or even three centuries and added their own verses to the authentic ‘Attar’s verses, even though their verses did not fit into ‘Attar’s refined sensibility in any manner whatsoever and had evenless contact with his authentic Gnostic doctrine. There were many “spurious ‘Attars” in Persian poetry judging on the number of works attributed to ‘Attar, which amounts to as many as 114, which is equal to the number of surahs in Qur’an, whereby the aim was to give ‘Attar’s personality “an aureola of holiness”.

Keywords: Divan, Esrarnama, Mantiq al-tayr, Mohtarnama, Mosibatnama, “spurious ‘Attars”, Tazkira avliya.