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Temeljni sufijski nauk Feriduddina ‘Attāra

UDK 141.336

140.8 ‘Attar F.

U sufijskom nauku Farīd al-Dīna ‘Attāra i tematskom dizajnu njegova duhovnog univerzuma Bog je najviši topos spoznaje. Ali, ako duhovni putnik (homo viator, sālik), koji hodi ‘mliječnim putem spoznaje’, što je tek sinonim za spoznajni put u islamu, hodi bez istinske Ljubavi (hubb haqīqī), on ne samo da ne poznaje suštinska lica stvari i pojava, kazao bi ‘Attār, već on ne zna ni prvo slovo alfabeta u kraljevstvima makrokozmosa, a još manje u kraljevstvu duha samog mikrokozmosa. Kako, onda, može pročitati i razumjeti ‘pismo Ljubavi’ kojim je Bog ispisao makrokozmičku i svetopovijesnu ‘Knjigu Kur’āna’, na šta ‘Attār na izravan ili neizravan način ukazuje u svojoj Ilāhi-nāmi? ‘Attār smatra da ahmedovski duh prvostvorene prirode pečatnog Poslanika islama (a.s.), kao izraz najsavršenije ćudi u samoj Božijoj viziji, čini samu suštinu svih tajanstava, uključujući i tajanstvo sveukupnog Bitka. Taj duh jest ona neprocjenjiva riznica koju je ‘Prijatelj iz Oberlanda’ skrio u svaki pojedinačni ljudski mikrokozmos.

Ključne riječi: ‘Attār, Ilāhi-nāma, kozmički san, Prijatelj iz Oberlanda, “kozmički spavač”

Abstract

The Foundamental Sufi Doctrine of Farīd al-Dīn ‘Attār

Rešid Hafizović

In the Sufi doctrine of Farīd al-Dīn ‘Attār and the thematic design of his spiritual universe, God is the highest topos of knowledge. However, if a spiritual wayfarer (homo viator, sālik), who treads “the milky path of knowledge”, which is a synonym for a Gnostic path in Islam, treads the path without the genuine Love (hubb haqīqī), not only does he not know the true faces of things and phenomena, ‘Attār would say, but he also does not know even the first letter of the alphabet in the kingdom of macrocosm, let alone in the kingdom of the spirit of the microcosm itself. Hence, how can he read and understand the “letter of Love” with which God has written the macrocosmic and holly-historic “Book of Qur’an”, to which ‘Attār directly or indirectly points out in his Ilāhi-nāma? ‘Attār holds that Ahmedian spirit of the first-created nature of the seal Prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), as an expression of the most perfect character in the vision of God, represents the very essence of all secrets, including the secret of the overall Being. That spirit is the invaluable treasury which “the Friend from the Oberland” has hidden in each individual human microcosm.

Keywords: ‘Attār, Ilāhi-nāma, cosmic dream, the Friend from the Oberland, “cosmic sleeper”