Kada je u pitanju leksičko značenje razuma (عقل), njegove odlike i zahtjevi po biti zajednička su svim racionalnim bićima, počevši od prvog intelekta pa sve do čovjekove moći razuma. Upravo iz ovog razloga kada govori o razumu Ibn Arebi na umu ima njegovo leksičko značenje. Razum čovjeka je nastao kao emanacije i isijavanja prvog intelekta. Shodno ovome, zbilje ljudskih razuma su isto kao i prvi intelekt iz vrste svjetlosti i ponad materije. Brojnost i razlike ljudskih razuma se temelji na materiji koja je primatelj (قابل) a ne na činitelju (فاعل) koji ih isijava. Čovjekov razum ima dvije dimenzije. Praktična dimenzija koja je vezana za kontrolu životinjskih nagona i upućivanje istih na vjerozakonom dozvoljena mjesta te pozivanju dobru i sprečavanju od činjenja lošeg. Spekulativna dimenzija zahvaljujući kojoj je razum jedan od perceptivnih moći čovjeka, sredstvo, put, ili izvor spoznaje zbilje. Suština razuma je svjetlost i perecpija i poput svjetlosti razotkriva i rasvjetljava druge i zbog toga može da dokuči zbilju u granicama svojih mogućnosti. Razum novu spoznaju stiče ili putem moći razmišljanja (razum koji motri) ili putem darivanja zbilje i spoznaje od Boga Uzvišenog koje on prima (razum koji prihvata).

Existential and Epistemological Position of Human’s Intellect from The Persepective of Ibn ‘Arabī

Mohammad Mahdī Gorğiyān and Mahdī Babāyī al-Mošīrī

Abstract

As far as the lexical meaning of the word عقل (intellect) is concerned, its characteristics and essential necessities are common to all rational beings, from the First Intellect to the human faculty of intellect. It is for this very reason that Ibn ‘Arabī has the lexical meaning in mind when he talks about intellect. The human intellect came into existence as an emanation of the First Intellect. Accordingly, the realities of human intellects are, just like the First Intellect, of the type of light and beyond matter. The multiplicity and differences of human intellects are based on the matter which is receiver (قابل), and not on the agent (فاعل) that emanates them. Human intellect has- two dimensions. The practical dimension is related to controlling animal instincts and directing them to the places allowed by the Divine Law (شریعت) and also promoting of good and preventing of evil. The speculative dimension is the one thanks to which intellect is one of the human perceptive faculties, a means, a way, or the source of knowing the reality. The essence of intellect is light and perception, and, like light, it reveals and illuminates others and because of that it can reach the reality within the limits of its capabilities. Intellect acquires new knowledge either through the faculty of thinking (the watching intellect) or through bestowing of the reality and knowledge by God (the receiving intellect).

Keywords: intellect, the First Intellect, the speculative intellect, knowledge, Ibn ‘Arabī.