UDK 28-1

Ljubav je od davnina privlačila pažnju brojnih muslimanskih učenjaka. Nadahnjujući se Kur’anom, hadisom, predislamskom poezijom i helenističkim naslijeđem, oni su objasnili prirodu ljubavi kako bi prikazali egzistencijalni smisao temeljnog učenja islama – potvrđivanje božanskog jedinstva (tevhid). U razdoblju od petog do šestog/jedanaestog do dvanaestog stoljeća došlo je do procvata ljubavne književnosti, naročito perzijske. Teoretičari i pjesnici su ljubav objasnili kao poticajnu snagu koja dovodi sve stvari u egzistenciju te sve vodi do konačnog cilja. Oni su smatrali da je Bog stvorio ljudska bića upravo zbog Njegove bespočetne ljubavi prema njima i da su ljudi urođeno obdareni ljubavlju jer su bili stvoreni na Njegovu sliku. Vrste ljudske ljubavi su se shvaćale kao metafore (majāz) za stvarnost (haqīqa) ljubavi, a to je Božija ljubav prema ljepoti. Autori takvih djela su usmjerili svoje napore ne prema upućivanju ljudi na pravilno ponašanje, što je uloga pravnika, niti na razjašnjavanje ispravnog vjerovanja, što je posao kelamskih stručnjaka, nego na to da im pomognu kako bi prepoznali da su svaka bol i patnja znaci odvojenosti od Jedinog Voljenog, te da je jedini uistinu ljudski cilj predati se zahtjevima ljubavi.

Abstract

Love in islamic thought

William C. Chittick

Love has occupied the attention of numerous Muslim scholars from early times. Taking inspiration from the Qur’an, the Hadith, pre-Islamic poetry, and the Hellenistic legacy, they explained love’s nature in order to bring out the existential import of Islam’s fundamental teaching, the assertion of divine unity (tawhīd). During the period between 5th and 6th (i.e. 11th and 12th) century, there was an upsurge in the literature of love, especially in literature written in Persian language. Theoreticians and poets explained it as the energizing power that brings all things into existence and drives everything to its final goal. They held that God created human beings precisely because of His beginningless love for them, and that people are innately endowed with love because they were created in His image. The varieties of human love were taken as metaphors (majāz) for love’s reality (haqīqa), which is God’s love for beauty. Authors of such works directed their efforts not at instructing people in right conduct, which is the role of the jurists, nor at clarifying right belief, which is the job of the Kalam experts, but at helping them recognize that all pain and suffering are signs of separation from the One Beloved, and that the only truly human goal is to surrender to love’s demands.

Keywords: love, Muslim scholars, the assertion of divine unity (tawhīd), the literature of love, metaphors (majāz), the reality (haqīqa), God’s love, beauty, the Beloved.